The Pontifical Order of the Golden Spur (or Golden Militia)
The second highest Pontifical Order of the Vatican City State is the Order of the Golden Spur, which was formed into a high award of Merit in 1841. It was known as the Order of Saint Sylvester and the Golden Militia until the reforms of the Papal Orders in 1905 limited it to one hundred knights, as the Order of the Golden Militia.
A further reform of 1966, limiting it to Christian Sovereigns and Heads of State, still described it in the Papal Bull as the Order of the Golden Militia, but the Annuario Pontificio describes it as the Order of the Golden Spur.
The Pontifical Order of the Golden Spur which included HIM The Shah of Iran and the recently deceased HSH Prince Rainier III of Monaco among its members. It has not been bestowed for a number of years. HRH Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg is among those living recipients of this award.